Robust Tracking of People, Hands and Faces

Paper by James L. Crowley and co-authors


We imploy a modular tracker architecture that combines the advantages of several simple and rapidly performing tracking algorithms. Robust tracking is facilitated by frame-rate or near-frame-rate processing. A Kalman filter is used to integrate tracking results across detection modules and across time. Processing regions are smoothly localized by weighting with a Gaussian that is dimensioned according to the target sizes and uncertainties estimated by the Kalman filter. The result is an adaptive tracker that can robustly track several targets at video frame rates, and whose performance degrades gracefully with increasing system load.


Documents are formatted in European A4 format.
  1. A. Caporossi, D. Hall, P. Reignier and J. L. Crowley, Robust Visual Tracking from Dynamic Control of Processing, PETS04, Workshop on Performance Evaluation for tracking and Surveillance, ECCV04, Prague, May 2004.
  2. J. L. Crowley and P. Reignier, Dynamic Composition of Process Federations for Context Aware Perception of Human Activity, International Conference on Integration of Knowledge Intensive Multi-Agent Systems, KIMAS’03, 1-3 October 2003, Cambridge MA, USA
  3. J. Piater and J. Crowley, "Event-based Activity Analysis in Live Video using a Generic Object Tracker", Performance Evaluation for Tracking and Surveillance, PETS-2002, Copenhagen, June 2002.
  4. J. Piater and J. L. Crowley, "Multi-Modal Tracking of Interacting Targets Using Gaussian Approximations", Performance Evaluation for Tracking and Surveillance, PETS-2001, Kauai, Dec 2001.
  5. K. Schwerdt et J. L. Crowley, "Robust Face Tracking using Color", 4th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition", Grenoble, France, March 2000.
  6. D. Hall and J. L. Crowley, "Tracking Fingers and Hands with a Rigid Contour Model in an Augmented Reality", MANSE 99: Managing Interactions in Smart Environments, ISBN 1-85233-228-X, Springer Verlag, pp 34-43, Dublin Dec 1999.
  7. J. L. Crowley and K. Schwerdt, "Robust Tracking and Compression for Video Communication", IEEE International Workshop on Recognition, Analysis, and Tracking of Faces and Gestures in Real Time Systems, Corfu, September 1999.
  8. W. Vieux, K. Schwerdt, and J. L. Crowley, "Face-tracking and coding for video compression", ICVS 99, International Conference on Vision Systems, Springer LNCS Series, Jan 1999.
  9. J. Martin and J. L. Crowley, "Active Hand Tracking", Third International IEEE Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Nara, Japan, April 14-16, 1998.
  10. J. L. Crowley and J. Martin, "Visual Processes for Tracking and Recognition of Hand Gestures", International Workshop on Perceptual User Interfaces, Banf, Ca, October 1997.
  11. J. L. Crowley and F. Berard,"Multi-Modal Tracking of Faces for Video Communications", 1997 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR '97, Puerto Rico, June 17-19, 1997.
  12. J. Coutaz, F. Berard and J. L. Crowley,"Coordination of Perceptual Processes for Computer Mediated Communication", FG96 - International Workshop on Face and Gesture Recognition, Vermont, Oct 1996.
  13. J. L. Crowley,"Multi-Modal Tracking for Video Compression", Symposium on Intelligent Robotics Systems '96, Lisbon, July 1996.
  14. J. L. Crowley, "Integration and Control of Active Visual Processes", Workshop on Integration and Control for Computer Vision, IROS 95, Pittsburgh, August 1995.
  15. J. L. Crowley, F. Bérard and J. Coutaz, "Finger Tracking as an Input Device for Augmented Reality", IWAGFR - International Workshop on Gesture and Face Recognition, Zurich, June 1995.
  16. J. L. Crowley and J. Martin,"Experimental Comparison of Correlation Techniques", IAS-4, International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Karlsruhe, March 1995. (Best Paper Award IAS-4) (224 K bytes)
  17. F. Bérard, J. Coutaz, J. L. Crowley, "Suivi du doigt en vision par ordinateur : Application au bureau digital", I.H.M. '94, Lille, Dec 94.
  18. J. L. Crowley and J. M. Bedrune,"Integration and Control of Reactive Visual Processes, 1994 European Conference on Computer Vision, (ECCV-'94), Stockholm, may 94.
  19. J. L. Crowley, "Vision as Process: Integration and Control of a Real Time Active Vision System", Swiss Vision '93, Plenum presentation, Zurich, september 93
  20. J. L. Crowley, "Real Time Active Vision Systems", International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Nagoya, Japon, november, 1992
  21. J. L. Crowley, "Towards Continously Operating Integrated Vision Systems for Robotics Applications", Keynote Talk, 7th S.C.I.A., Aalborg, August 1991.
  22. J. L. Crowley and P. Stelmaszyk, "Measurement and Integration of 3-D Structures By Tracking Edge Lines, First E.C.C.V., Antibes, Springer Verlag, April 1990.
  23. J. L. Crowley, "Dynamic Modeling of Free-Space for a Mobile Robot", IEEE IROS-II, Tsukuba, Japan, Sept. 1989..
  24. J. L. Crowley, P. Stelmaszyk and C. Discours, "Measuring Image Flow by Tracking Edge Lines", Second I.C.C.V., Tarpon Springs, Fla, Dec. 1988.
  25. J. L. Crowley, "Using the Composite Surface Model for Perceptual Tasks", IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Raleigh, April 1987.
  26. J. L. Crowley, "Representation and Maintenance of a Composite Surface Model", IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, April 1986.
  27. J. L. Crowley, "Construction and Maintenance of a Composite Surface Model", 2nd International Symposium S.P.I.E., Cannes, December, 1985.